Map of projected CO2 transport infrastructure in 2030 in Europe
References to the project

Energy Procedia, 2013. A summary of the project's conclusions and recommendations for the development of a CO2 transport system in Europe can be found here.
Energy Procedia, Volume 37, p. 7774-7782, 2013

Energy Procedia, 2013. This paper describes the requirements for a future CO2 transport system in Europe. The requirements include transport capacity and timing; the paper shows a number of maps of potential transport corridors, such as the one shown on the right.
Energy Procedia, Volume 4, p. 2740-2747, 2011

European Energy Review. An online article on the CO2Europipe project was published on November 17, 2011. The article discusses the results published in the summary report from the project and emphasises our findings that action is required now; a number of 'key' countries in Europe should take the lead in developing CO2 transport infrastructure. To prepare for large-scale transport infrastructure, Member States in Europe, in close coordination with and by the European Union, are to set up Master Plans.

Regional Review, issue 21, page 43. A summary of the project was published in the online magazine 'Regional review', highlighting the project's goals and (preliminary) results.

Project reports
Project summary report. This report presents the overall results and recommendations from the EU FP7 CO2Europipe project. The aim of the project is to study the requirements for the development of a large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure in Europe, between 2020 and 2050. An analysis of the demand for CO2 transport was derived by linking the expected CO2 captured volumes in the period between 2020 and 2050 to the locations where CO2 can be stored in the subsurface. This resulted in a series of maps of plausible transport corridors, on the assumption that CO2 capture and storage (CCS) will play a significant role in the reduction of CO2 emission. The requirements for the development of this infrastructure were derived on such levels as technology, policy, regulations and organisation. The most important conclusions are related to the finding that the EU CCS transport infrastructure is to be led by a relatively small number of countries, who share the largest burden in the areas of CO2 capture, transport and storage. These include the countries bordering the North Sea, and those countries relying heavily on coal or lignite for their power supply (Germany, Poland the Czech Republic). It is crucial that these countries take the lead and are supported to do so, not only now, but during the whole CCS infrastructure development.
D2.1.1 - Existing infrastructure for the transport of CO2. This report investigates existing infrastructure and standards, regulations and modes of practice to ascertain to what extent CO2 transport can benefit from them. The report discusses (the optional re-use of) platforms, pipelines, gas carriers (ships), etc. The experience with CO2 transportion in the United States and Canada is discussed, with respect to current codes of practice. This report also discusses the options for re-using existing infrastructure for CO2 transport. The report discusses platforms, pipeline and ship transport, current standards and regulations and, finally, environmental and organisational standards.
D2.2.1 - Report on future, large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure. The development of a large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure in north-west and central Europe is described, starting from the expected growth in captured volumes and the availability of storage locations, in the period 2020 – 2050. Growing from a limited volume in 2020, a strong increase in capture, transport and storage effort is foreseen in the following decades, to reach a volume of around 1 Gt annually by 2050. Conclusions are drawn regarding the construction effort involved and the distribution of that effort over the different EU Member States. The long-term, large-scale infrastructure is used in the CO2Europipe project as the goal, when deriving the requirements for optimum CCS infrastructure development (see the map above for an example).
D2.3.1 - Report on CCS stakeholders views, CCS organisation. This report presents the current view of stakeholders on organisational requirements concerning the development of a large-scale CO2 transport network. Special attention is paid to the transition from single source-to-sink infrastructure to more complex networks, in order to also provide insight into changes in stakeholder interests and requirements.
D3.1.1 - Transport network design and CO2 management. This report describes technical challenges in the design, construction and operation of a large-scale pan-European CO2 transmission network. Additional elements of a CO2 transport network are discussed, including compression, shipping, injection.
D3.1.2 - Report on Standards for CO2. The central issue tackled in this report is the required composition of CO2 for safe, reliable and cost-efficient carbon capture, transport and storage. The composition of the CO2 affects the design of each of the components in the CCS chain, and vice versa. The report describes the effect of impurities on the storage reservoir and also discusses the implication of water concentration in the CO2 stream.
D3.2.1 - Report on CO2 transport through pipelines risk characterization and management. This report addresses the risks, related to CO2 transport through pipelines, for society and the local environment. The characterisation and mitigation of pipeline transport risk is discussed and a literature survey of frameworks for risk assessment is given. The report lists current knowledge gaps related to the analysis of risks associated with CO2 transportion through pipelines.
D3.3.1 - Report on legal, financial and organisational aspects of CCS infrastructure. This report covers the legal aspects of CO2 transport and infrastructure development, presents cost-estimates for pipelines, compression and shipping from industrial partners, and reviews current literature regarding organizational issues of CO2 transportation networks.
D4.1.1 - Report on scenarios for the development of a CCS transport network and hub from Rotterdam. Scenarios for future captured CO2 emissions for industry and power sector have been investigated together with models for CO2 storage planning in the North Sea and scenarios for enhanced oil recovery using CO2. These scenarios and models have been applied to develop a set of measures and a transport network in the North sea that best serves the objectives of society (large cost-effective CO2 reductions) and industry/investors (competitive return on capital with acceptable risk profile).
D4.2.1 - Report on the current infrastructure for CCS in the Rhine-Ruhr area in Germany. This report describes today's starting point, at the level of existing infrastructure and current regulations, for the development of CCS in the Rhine-Ruhr area in Germany. Sources of CO2 as well as potential sinks in this area are well known and described here. Different scenarios for the evolvement of capture technology are explained. A rather conservative scenario assumes that by 2020 a capture rate of 1 Mt/yr might be reached within the test case area, 2.5 Mt/yr in 2025, 10 Mt/yr in 2032, and 20 Mt/yr in 2040 and 2050. The results from this report are used in D4.2.2.
D4.2.2 - Report on possible development of CCS infrastructure in Germany. For the period 2020 - 2050, this report presents an outlook on the transport infrastructure for CO2 in northwest Germany. The infrastructure is based on the most up to date databases and on current corporate and national CCS plans as well as on storage feasibility studies. Company plans of CCS developments were used as a basis in matching the gradually growing captured volumes with storage capacity that gradually becomes available. The aim of this report is to identify likely transport corridors and to estimate the order of magnitude of transported volumes in a future CCS infrastructure.
D4.3.1 - Report on the Karsto pipeline project. This report describes a case study of transport of 1, 3 and 5 Mt/yr CO2 from Kårstø to offshore storage in the Utsira saline formation on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Both pipeline and ship transport is analysed. Description of technical solutions and cost estimates are provided.
D4.3.2 - Report on extending the Karsto pipeline project to accomodate CO2 from outside Norway. This report describes a case study where the "point to point" system in the Kårstø case study described in deliverable 4.3.1 is extended to a small network consisting of additional CO2 pipelines from Rotterdam (the Netherlands) and Teesside (UK) entering the same storage location in the Utsira formation on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. In addition, a ship transport chain is described as part of the sources for CO2 at Teesside, i.e. that CO2 is transported from a different location to Teesside by ship, for injection into the pipeline system to Utsira. In addition to the technical description, cost estimates are given for the transport system.
D4.4.1 - Report on the environmental impact and risks of CO2 storage in Poland. The environmental impact assessment presented in this report shows that there are grounds for issuing of a decision on the environmental constraints of implementation of a demonstration plant for CO2 capture, fully integrated with the new 858 MW power unit at PGE Belchatow Power Plant (synchronized for the first time with the national power grid), taking into account the recommendations included in the environmental impact report for the investment. Environmental decisions related to the storage place and to CO2 transport systems can only be issued after more specific geological recognition of the CO2 storage locations, and also after ensuring compliance of the said investments with the relevant local land use plans.
D4.4.2 - Report on the CO2 capture plant at the Belchatow site in Poland. This case study gives an overview of the CCS Project currently being evaluated for Belchatow - the biggest lignite-fired power plant in Poland. The project consists of three phases: CO2 capturing, transportation and storage in aquifers located within a range of 100 km from Belchatow. The report describes how the capturing plant will be introduced into the whole electricity generation process. The report discusses the options for storage and gives basic assumptions of sinks' capacities, as well as possible transport methods with associated risks. The last part of the report presents some economic facts connected with investments and operations of the capturing plant in different time horizons.
D4.4.3 - Report on the possible development of CCS in the Czech Republic. This deliverable describes a possible development of CO2 transport infrastructure in the Czech Republic for a model unit, consisting of CO2 source with lignite fuel and post-combustion capture; pipeline transportation facility and domestic or foreign CO2 storage. Basic construction and operational aspects of the model unit are described; technical, legal, environmental and societal aspects are also taken into account as much as possible. Scenarios, defined in this deliverable, represent possible limits to the domestic CO2 transportation network development. Several recommendations are formulated: evaluate CCS in comparison with alternative CO2 abatement options in domestic conditions, to devise a state CCS development strategy, to promote research and development in CO2 abatement technologies and to increase awareness on CO2 abatement technologies.

Conference presentations

The results from the project have been presented at conferences on CCS (carbon capture and storage). The links below connect to the conference web sites, where more information on the conference can be found; no presentations can be downloaded.
Second EAGE CO2 Geological Storage Workshop (Berlin, Germany, March 2010)
CCS Ready to go? European conference on CCS research, development and demonstration (Rotterdam, The Netherlands, April 2010)
The tenth international greenhouse gas control technologies conference (GHGT10), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 2010
CO2 transportation summit, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, November 23-24, 2010
Webinar, December 1, 2010. A web presentation on the CO2Europipe view on future, large-scale infrastructure. The webinar can be viewed, free of charge. The viewer is asked to provide an e-mail address. (The webinar takes 2 hours!)

Links to publications

The following four publications are papers prepared for the GHGT10 conference in Amsterdam, September 2010, accompanying posters or oral presentations. The papers will be published in Energy Procedia in Spring 2011 and are provided here as a preview.
Neele et al., 2010, Large-scale CCS transport and storage networks in north-west Europe
Mikunda et al., 2010, Towards a CO2 infrastructure in North-West Europe: stakeholder requirements, finance and organization
Koenen et al., 2010, Geochemical effects of impurities in CO2 on storage reservoirs
Buit et al., 2010, CO2EuroPipe study of the occurrence of free water in dense phase CO2 transport and storage